Pena Contents
Introduction
Control Pane
Brush Pane
Texture Pane
Effects Pane
Color Picker
Save/Load Pane
Selection Pane
Preferences Pane
Intelligent Canvas
Wacom Bluetooth Stylus
Jot Bluetooth Stylus
 
The Effects Library
Effects Introduction
  • Color 1 and 2 Revisited
  • A Word About Complexity
  • About the Options Pane
  • Options Pane Color Pickers
  • Options Pane Texture Pickers
  • Options Pane Clock Selector
  • Options Pane Integer Dials
  • Options Pane Real Dials
  • Options Pane Check Marks
  • Resetting An Effect
  • Previewing An Effect
  • Color Source Effects
    Procedural Source Effects
    Color Filter Effects
    Spatial Filter Effects
    Math and Logic Effects
    Special Effects
     
    Artists Gallery
    The Artist Gallery
     
    Pena Support
    Troubleshooting

       

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      The Effects Library

      Effects Library Introduction


      The following sections describe all the Brush / Surface Effects available in Pena, along with examples.

      Some Effects are simple, but others will have more lengthy descriptions and examples. Because of this, each Effect has its own page.

      The Effects Library is a Pop Up that appears when you tap any of the 32 Brush or 32 Surface slots on the Effects Pane:

      The Effects Library is divided in half, left and right. On the left side are the Effect Categories and on the right side are the Effects themselves.

      The Effect Categories attempt to divide the Effects into groups that make some logical sense. However, there is a degree of overlap with most of the categories. For example, many Effects in all the categories can be Color Sources (the first category).

      Below is a brief description of each Effect Category:

      • Color Sources - These are basic color generators. You can choose colors, textures, the drawing surface, and various effects based around those.
      • Procedural Sources - These are more advanced color generators and modifiers. These produce patterns, such as clouds, water, marble, leopard, and other various effects. Some of these are pure color generators, some of these can modify existing colors.
      • Color Filters - These are effects that can modify color in some manner, such as tinting, blending, and other types of modification.
      • Spatial Filters - These are effects that can modify where a color ends up when it is painted. This includes rotating, spattering, and other location based effects.
      • Math and Logic - These are pure math and logic effects that operate between colors. Things like adding, multiplying, averaging, and similar effects.
      • Special Effects - These are mainly extremely complex effects that work well as backgrounds or elements of a painting. Depending on your iPad model, some of these may be quite slow to render.
      On the Effects Library, when you tap one of the six categories on the left, the scroll list on the right will change to show the Effects in that category. For example, in the image above the Procedural Sources category is selected (green) and the list on the right shows part of the Procedural Source Effects that are available. In the image 4-Color Gradient is the selected Procedural Source Effect.

      To assign an Effect to one of your Brush or Surface Effect slots (on the Effects Pane) tap the slot to display the Effect Library, then tap the desired category in the Effect Library and scroll the list on the right to find the desired Effect and tap it. The Effect will now appear in your desired slot.

       

      Color 1 and 2 Revisited


      We should briefly look a bit more closely at Color 1 and Color 2.

      As you already have read, Color 1 and Color 2 start out as solid or semi-solid colors, indicated by the two colors on the Control Pane.

      However, Color 1 and Color 2 are a bit more talented than just holding colors.

      Both Color 1 and Color 2 can also hold textures, photos, noise, and even the drawing itself. When this happens, the actual color changes on a per pixel basis to be whatever it should be from the photo, etc.

      The entire idea to Pena is that each Effect takes Color 1 and Color 2 as input, does something to one or both, and outputs the newly modified Color 1 and/or Color 2.

      Because you string Effects together, in the Effect Slots, each Effect modifies the color in some way and hands it to the next Effect, which modifies it, hands it to the next Effect, and so on.

      After the final Effect has done its work, Color 1 is drawn to the screen and Color 2 is discarded (it is only a temporary working color for the Effects to use).

      So, for example, the Effect in slot 01 might be a Texture (some Photo form your Photo Album), and the Effect in slot 02 might be a Green Tint (change the tint of a color). In this case, Color 1 is changed like this:

      1. Color 1 starts out to be whatever it is set to on the Control Pane.
      2. Slot 1 tells Color 1 to be your Photo, replacing the color it was.
      3. Slot 2 tells Color 1 to be tinted green, replacing the color it was.
      The final output will be your Photo, tinted green.

      Color 2 is used as an extra color to do many wonderful things. For example, we can use a Photo (texture) in Color 1, and a different one in Color 2, and combine them in unusual and interesting ways.

      Colors can be created and destroyed at will in the Brush and Surface programs, and in fact often do. You might load up Color 2 and use it to do something with Color 1, then change Color 2, modify Color 1 again, etc... all in one program. You have 32 slots to play with, so you can get quite complicated.

      Once you become good at using Pena you will discover that you actually need more than just Color 1 and Color 2. When doing extremely complex Effects it would be nice to backup Color 1 and Color 2, and then restore them at a later point in the Effect list. The Color Store and Color Restore Effects (in the Math and Logic category) allow you to do this.

       

      A Word About Complexity


      In the last section we just pointed out that some programs will be quite complex, using perhaps many of the 32 Brush and/or Surface slots.

      We should point out that the more Effects you chain, the slower painting becomes. This is because more work needs to be done to create the final colors.

      Some Effects run very quickly, but some, such as ones in the Special Effect category, can take some time to run.

      Your actual performance will depend on which Effects, the number of Effects and the model of iPad device you are running on.

      An iPad Air, for example, can run most of the Special Effect, in their default modes, nearly instantly. But still, if you stack several you might find drawing slower.

      Older iPad models will definately be slower at drawing some Effects, and stacking many Effects may not be practical for some types of painting.

      However, there are some things you can do to optimize the performance:

      • Don't have Effects with Color 1 and Color 2 both set to IGNORE - Most Effects let you specify which Colors (1 and/or 2) the Effect modifies. If you set the Effect to not modify either color, the Effect still runs, but changes nothing. This wastes valuable time in drawing. Instead of setting both colors to IGNORE, turn the green check mark next to the Effect Slot to a red X. This will skip that Effect in the program (while keeping it in your list).
      • Don't modify a Color if you don't intend to use it - If an Effect modifies both Color 1 and Color 2, but Color 2 is never used further on, that is slightly (though not much) slower. By default all the Effects IGNORE Color 2 and REPLACE Color 1, but if you set Color 2 to be anything other than IGNORE, it is best to make sure you are using it further on, otherwise it is wasting painting time.
      • Intelligent Canvas slows things much more - Painting with Intelligent Canvas turned on is slower than with it turned off. There are two reasons for this. The obvious reason is that there are simply more Effects being run (the Brush and Surface). The not-so-obvious reason is that Intelligent Canvas requires more steps to determine if the pixel is intelligent, and that also takes some time. If Intelligent Canvas is too slow for the Effects you want to use, one strategy is to create it in pieces (layers) and then turn off Surface Effects and protect the region with a selection mask.
      • In extreme cases, use selection masks and Flood - The Flood icon on the Control Pane lets you apply the current Effects to the entire Canvas. This is much faster than trying to paint the Canvas with a brush. For very slow complicated Effects, use selection masks to select the area you want to paint, then use Flood to quicky fill that entire area.
      • Textures are your friend - Instead of painting with a slow complex set of Effects, use Flood (as in the last point) to create your desired effect and then move it into one of the Texture Slots on the Texture Pane. You can then simply paint with the Texture, set to Fit To Brush to have the same effect applied very quickly.
      Each Effect we describe has an indication at the top of the page that says whether or not this is a slow, medium, or fast Effect to help you judge how it is used.

       

      About the Options Panes


      When you add Effects to the Brush and Surface lists in the Effects Pane each one has a tiny disclosure icon on the right side that is a blue circle with a blue i in it and a grey arrow to the right:

      Tapping the blue circle will cause an Options Pane to appear for the effect you tapped on:

      The Options Pane shown above is for the Brick Wall Effect. Each Effect will have its own Options Pane that is designed specifically for it.

      You can see that the Options Pane controls are labeled on the left as to what they do, with the actual control on the right.

      Even though each Options Pane is unique, there are only a few different types of controls that can be displayed. These are explained in the following sections:

      When you are done making changes with an Options Pane, tap anywhere outside of it to dismiss the pane.

       

      Options Pane Color Pickers


      Some Effects contain their own colors, rather than using Color 1 and/or Color 2. For example, the Brick Wall Effect has a color for the brick and a color for the morter.

      When an Effect has its own Color, the Option Pane has a Color Picker control:

      Tap the Color to bring up the Color Picker. Use the Color Picker to change the Color.

       

      Options Pane Texture Picker


      Some Effects work with Textures that you load using the Texture Pane.

      As you may recall, the Texture Pane lets you load up to 5 Textures with photos from your Photo Album and Noise.

      The Options Pane Texture Picker control lets you assign a texture to this Effectr:

      The Texture control consits of five circles numbered 1 through 5. These correspond with the five Texture Pane textures. Tap the desired texture to use for this Effect. The Green Circle is the currently selected texture, the Yellow ones are not currently selected.

      You can tap any texture circle and set that texture, even if there is nothing loaded for that texture on the Texture Pane. However, if you try to paint Pena will give you a warning that you need to load a missing texture.

      By default, each new instance of a Texture control has Texture 1 selected.

       

      Options Pane Clock Selector


      Many Effects work with Clocks that you setup in the Brush Pane. Clocks let an Effect change over time as you paint.

      There are four Clocks available in Pena. This control lets you select the desired Clock to use for this Effect:

      The Clock control consits of four circles numbered 1 through 4. These correspond with the four Brush Pane Clocks. Tap the desired clock to use for this Effect. The Green Circle is the currently selected clock, the Yellow ones are not currently selected.

      To the right of the clock circles is a button labeled reset. Tapping the reset button will give you a Pop Up that lets you select which of the four Clocks you would like to reset to its initial value. The Preference Pane also has a button that controls how clock are reset each time you start painting.

      By default, each new instance of a Clock control has Clock 1 selected.

      Note that you can tap any Green Clock again, to turn all the clocks Yellow. This turns off the Clock for that Effect.

       

      Options Pane Integer Dials


      A Integer number is a number without a decimal point or fraction. For example, 7 would be an Integer.

      Many Effect controls are Integer Dials. These let you dial, or type, in a number which changes some aspect of an Effect.

      The Integer Dial control looks like this:

      On the right side is a Thumb Wheel that lets you use your finger to modify the number.

      To use the thumb wheel, tap, hold, and drag left and right:

      • Drag left to decrease the value.
      • Drag right to increase the value.
      • Dragging slowly will change the value in the smallest possible steps.
      • Dragging quickly will change the value at a larger step, based on the speed of your drag.
      • Vary the speed of your drag, from slow to fast, to dial in the desired value.
      Below the thumb wheel, in small text, is the Minimum and Maximum values that this control can be. You can not enter a number lower than the Minimum (left value) or higher than the Maximum (right value).

      Below the control text on the left is the Default for this control. This is the value that the control intially has, and is a reminder to you as to the 'normal' value for this control. At the very left of the option is a dim circle. Tapping this will restore this option to its default value.

      Some Effects have Integer ranges that might be very large. For example, -1000 to 1000 in increments of 1. Using the thumb wheel may be time consuming to move from one extreme to the other. In this case, tap the value field for the control to display the keyboard. Use the keyboard to quickly enter the desired value.

      If you enter a value below the Minimum, or higher than the Maximum, it will be set to the Minimum or Maximum after you are done.

       

      Options Pane Real Dials


      A Real number is a number with a decimal point and fraction. For example, 3.141 would be a Real number. Another word for this is a Floating Point number.

      Many Effect controls are Real Dials. These let you dial, or type, in a number which changes some aspect of an Effect.

      The Real Dial control looks like this:

      On the right side is a Thumb Wheel that lets you use your finger to modify the number.

      To use the thumb wheel, tap, hold, and drag left and right:

      • Drag left to decrease the value.
      • Drag right to increase the value.
      • Dragging slowly will change the value in the smallest possible steps.
      • Dragging quickly will change the value at a larger step, based on the speed of your drag.
      • Vary the speed of your drag, from slow to fast, to dial in the desired value.
      Below the thumb wheel, in small text, is the Minimum and Maximum values that this control can be. You can not enter a number lower than the Minimum (left value) or higher than the Maximum (right value).

      Below the control text on the left is the Default for this control. This is the value that the control intially has, and is a reminder to you as to the 'normal' value for this control. At the very left of the option is a dim circle. Tapping this will restore this option to its default value.

      Some Effects have Real ranges that might be very large. For example, -1000.0 to 1000.0 in .001 increments. Using the thumb wheel may be time consuming to move from one extreme to the other. In this case, tap the value field for the control to display the keyboard. Use the keyboard to quickly enter the desired value.

      If you enter a value below the Minimum, or higher than the Maximum, it will be set to the Minimum or Maximum after you are done.

       

      Options Pane Check Marks


      Many Effects use Check Marks to turn options in the Effect on and off. There are a variety of Check Mark controls used throughout the various Effects, however here we will concentrate on the Fit To Brush check mark, as it is most important.

      Check Marks appear as a Red X or a Green Check Mark. If it is a Red X, than that option is turned off:

      If it is a Green Check Mark then the option is turned on:

      To toggle the state, just tap the X or the Check Mark.

      One Check Mark control that appears on nearly every Effect (though not all) is the Fit To Brush Check Mark. Because it is used for so many Effects we will describe it.

      By default, the Fit To Brush Check Mark is always turned off (Red X). To enable Fit To Brush simply tap the X to turn it into a Green Check Mark.

      When Fit To Brush is turned off, the Effect, when painting, is applied to the edges of the Canvas.

      What that means is, as you are painting it is as if you are revealing the Effect which is covers your entire Canvas.

      For example, if your Effect is the 4-Color Gradient then the four colors are considered to be at the four corners of your Canvas. When you paint with, say, a round small brush, you reveal that portion of the gradient under your brush.

      When Fit To Brush is turned on (Green Check Mark), then the Effect is sized to your Brush. In the 4-Color Gradient example, the four colors would be at the four corners of your Brush, instead of the Canvas.

      Painting this way will paint the entire gradient as your brush, not fit to the Canvas, but fit to your brush.

      As another example, consider painting with a Texture from your Photo Album, say a picture of your car. With Fit To Brush turned off (Red X), as you paint you will reveal the photo where you paint, as if the photo is the entire Canvas.

      With Fit To Brush turned on (Green Check Mark), the entire Photo of the car will fit in your brush - and as you paint you will be painting your car everywhere.

      You will use Fit To Brush very often in your painting, as this gives you a huge variation on an effect.

      In fact, you will combine many Effects, some set to Fit To Brush, others not.

       

      Options Pane Color Mixers


      Just about every Effect has two Output Color Mixers near the bottom of the Options Pane for that Effect.

      The first Color Mixer is labeled Output Color 1 and the second is labeled Output Color 2:

      This is asking you how you want the Effect to interact with Color 1 and Color 2. By default this it is set to REPLACE Color 1, and IGNORE Color 2.

      What that means is whatever was in Color 1 before this Effect will be completely replaced by the output of this Effect. Color 2 will remain what it was, as this Effect is ignoring it.

      To change how the Mixers interact, tap the Mixer you wish to change, and you see the Pop Up:

      The Pop Up will read "Color 1" or "Color 2" depending on which Mixer you selected.

      Tap the Cancel button to dismiss the Pop Up without taking any action. Otherwise the following choices are available:

      • IGNORE - This Effect will not change this Color.
      • REPLACE - This Effect will replace this Color.
      • ADD - This Effect will ADD to the Color. Each channel from the Effect (Red, Green, Blue, and Alpha) is added to each channel from the Color. They are clipped at the maximum, so this tends to produce lighter than normal images (more towards white).
      • MIX - This Effect will MIX with the Color. Each channel from the Effect (Red, Green, Blue, and Alpha) is mixed with each channel from the Color. The mix amount defaults to 50%, which is half the Effect and half the Color. On the Options Pane a thumb wheel will appear next to the Color Mixer that lets you change the Mix amount from 0% to 100%:

        Use the Thumb Wheel to dial in the desired mixing amount.

      • MULTIPLY - This Effect will be MULTIPLIED with the Color. Each channel from the Effect (Red, Green, Blue, and Alpha) is multiplied with each channel from the Color. Note that if either the Effect or the Color is black, you will get black as a result (as zero times anything is zero).
      Since there are two Color Mixers, one for Color 1, and one for Color 2, the Effect can output to one, or both, at the same time.

      If both Color Mixers are set to IGNORE, the Effect is still run but has no output. This is undesirable as it slows down your painting.

      Note that at the very left of both Color Mixers is a dim circle. Tapping either one will cause what is in Output Color 1 to be exchanged with what is in Output Color 2. This is very helpful. Many times you will want an effect to output in Color 2 instead of the default Color 1. Instead of having to bring up both Pop Up and setting Color 1 to Ignore and Color 2 to Replace, you can simply tap one of the grey circles to have them exchanged.

       

      Prevewing An Effect


      Every Effects Options Pane has, at the bottom, two buttons that help you in visualizing quickly what an Effect will look like:

      Both buttons will hide the menus and flood the entire Canvas with the Effect. When you are done looking at it, tap the Canvas and it will return to what it was. Make any adjustments and repeat as needed. Which button you use will depend a bit on the Effects you are combining:

      The preview this effect button will show you only the current Effect. Any other Effect will be temporairly turned off while you are previewing the Canvas. Depending on the Effect, the may, or may not, be useful. Because the other Effects are turned off you don't have the benefit of seeing their interaction, which may be crucial to the output of the Effect. Likewise, with the other Effects turned off, your input Color 1 and 2 are from the Control Pane.

      However, the preview this effect button can be useful when you are trying to find out why an Effect in a group is not producing what you think it should.

      The preview program button will flood the screen with the current program. All Effects that are turned on will be used. The current Effect you are modifying will be used as well, even if it is turned off.

       

      Resetting An Effect


      There will be times where you get some control in some Effect set so the Effect is completely unusable. You might have forgotten what changes you made, or just want to start over.

      The Integer, and Real options have a dim grey circle at the very left that can be tapped to restore that option to its default value.

      However, there may be times where you want the entire Effect, all the options, restored to their default value.

      Any Effect in your Brush or Surface Effect lists can be reset to the default by simply tapping on the Effect name. You will get the Effect Library to let you select the Effect. Simply tap on the same Effect as shown in the list (it will already be highlighted and positioned for you) - it will be loaded again, resetting all the controls to their default values.

       

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